COVID-19 vaccines: research and development

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is interacting with developers of potential COVID-19 vaccines to enable its distribution in the European Union (EU) as soon as possible.

EMA is providing guidance to assist developers of potential COVID-19 vaccines to prepare for eventual applications for marketing authorisation

The outcome of any consultation or advice from EMA is not binding on developers.

COVID-19 medicines that have received EMA advice

ProductDeveloperDevelopment stage at time of guidance
Ad26.COV2.SJanssen-Cilag International N.V.Non-clinical phase
Ad5-nCoV vaccineCansino BiotechClinical phase
Adjuvanted whole virion inactivated vaccineSinovac Biotech LtdNon-clinical phase
ChAdOx1-SARS-CoV-2Vaccitech/AstraZenecaClinical phase
Coronavirus-like particle (COVLP)MedicagoNon-clinical phase
CVnCoV, CV07050101 vaccineCurevacNon-clinical phase
Herpes simplex virus vector tetravalent SARS-CoV-2 vaccine Krystal BioNon-clinical phase
LNP-saRNA CoVid19 vaccineVacEquity Global Health/Imperial College LondonClinical phase
LUNAR-COV19 mRNA vaccineArcturus TherapeuticsClinical phase
mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccineBiontechNon-clinical phase
mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccineModernaNon-clinical phase
MV-SARS-CoV-2 vaccineThemis Bioscience GmbH/Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD)Non-clinical phase
NVX-CoV-2 rSNovavaxNon-clinical phase
Protein nanoparticle vaccineEmergex Vaccines Holding LtdNon-clinical phase
rVSVΔG-SARS-CoV-2 live attenuatedMerck Sharp & Dohme (MSD)/IAVINon-clinical phase
SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccineInovioNon-clinical phase
SARS-Cov-2 vaccineQueensland University/Seqirus/CSLNon-clinical phase
SARS-CoV-2 vaccine recombinant, adjuvantedSanofi PasteurNon-clinical phase
S-trimer subunit vaccineClover BiopharmaClinical phase
Subunit vaccine adjuvanted MVC-COV1901MedigenNon-clinical phase
VLA 2001 vaccineValnevaNon-clinical phase
Protein vaccine adjuvantedKentucky Bioprocessing, IncNon-clinical phase
DNA Plasmid vaccineTakis S.r.l., Rottapham BiotechNon-clinical phase
Gam-COVID-VacThe Gamaleya National Centre of Epidemiology and MicrobiologyClinical phase
MRT5500 mRNA vaccineSanofi / Translate BioNon-clinical phase
PB-206HIPRANon-clinical phase
UB-612Vaxxinity (Covaxx) / UBI (United Biomedical, Inc.)Clinical phase
MVA-SARS-2-S and MVA-SARS-2-STIDT-Biologika / German Center for Infection Research (DZIF)Clinical phase
GBP510Sk Bioscience Co. LtdClinical phase
FINCoVac 2.0 vaccineRokote Laboratories Finland OyNon-clinical phase
GRAd-COV2Reithera S.r.l.Clinical phase
GSK&CV SARS-COV-2 vaccine (2nd generation)GSK and CureVacClinical phase
Prime‐2‐CoVSperansa TherapeuticsClinical phase
Vaxzevria-AZD-2816AstraZenecaClinical phase
RVX-13RocketVax AGNon-clinical phase
ABNCoV2Bavarian Nordic ASClinical phase
VB10.2210Nykode TherapeuticsClinical phase
PHH-1VLaboratorios HIPRA S.A.Clinical phase
ISR52ISR Vaccine ABNon-clinical phase
INO-4800InovioClinical phase
ARCT-154Arcturus Therapeutics Europe B.V.Clinical phase
Ad5-nCoV-IHCansino BiotechClinical phase
MVC-COV1901Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corp.Clinical phase
Dellera, mRNA vaccineFondo Ricerca Medica S.r.l.Clinical phase
CV0501CureVac and GSKClinical phase
COVI-LivBilthoven Biologicals B.V.Clinical phase
LinKinVaxNon-clinical phase
MVA-CoV2-S(3P)Biofabri S.L.Non-clinical phase
Last updated 6 October 2022

This information should not be read as an endorsement of any medicine

Ongoing clinical trials in the EU

Information on ongoing clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccines in the European Economic Area (EEA) is available in the EU Clinical Trials Register (EU CTR):

Users can find information on:

  • phase II to phase IV adult clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccines where the investigator sites are in the EEA;
  • any clinical trials in children with investigator sites in the EU and any trials that form part of a paediatric investigation plan, including those where the investigator sites are outside the EU.

Phase I clinical trials conducted solely in adults are not made publicly available in the EU CTR.

For more information on the EU CTR and how clinical trials are authorised and overseen in the EEA, see:


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